Summary of "Lights, Camera, Action: Advancing Learning, Research, and Program Evaluation through Video Production in Educational Leadership Preparation"

One Sentence Summary

This study advances a framework for digital video production as a learning and teaching tool, research instrument, and evaluation and innovation tool in educational administration preparation.


Jennifer Friend and Matthew Militello

Research Questions

This article investigates the following research questions:

  • How will technological advances, specifically speed of dissemination and the public nature of diffusion, affect the preparation of future school leaders?

  • What will be the impact on educational research?

Major Findings/Discussion Points

This article provides a three-part framework for video production in educational leadership preparation.

Supports Learning

Through film production, students learn to use technology and collaborate with their peers. They are empowered to create their own narratives, capture diverse voices in their communities, and integrate their own leadership experiences.


The primary goal of filmmaking as a research methodology is to share a story using images and sound. There are six elements of video production: site selection, participant selection/ informed consent, video equipment, data collection (participant prompts), data analysis (selection of clips), findings/ discussion/ recommendations (sequencing of clips and post-production editing), and findings (sharing the film with an audience).

These six steps occur over three phases: pre-production (creating storyboards and designing study), production (gathering data through film and audio recordings), and post production (analysis, selection, and organization of video clips, collection of B-roll footage, and editing).

Video as a research instrument has the potential to transform research from something we do to subjects into something we do with participants - co-generation of knowledge through inclusion of authentic voices that can be shared with a wide audience.

Evaluate Programs and Share Innovations

Video can be used to improve the quality of the evaluation of educational administration preparation programs. There are opportunities for evaluation in three stages of video production: data collection (honouring participant voices), data analysis (gathering rich descriptive data), and sharing findings in the form of an executive summary. As evaluations are primarily written, video technology provides a different dimension to the evaluation of administrator preparation programs.

Video can also be used to share new practices with educational administrator preparation students, highlight program features and innovations that inspire new discussions to improve the educational leadership.

Full Citation

Friend, J., & Militello, M. (2015). Lights, camera, action: Advancing learning, research, and program evaluation through video production in educational leadership preparation. Journal of Research on Leadership Education, 10(2), 81-103.

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Summary of "Web 2.0 Integration into the Graduate Classroom: An Appreciative Inquiry into Prospective School Administrator Strengths and Leadership Experience"

One Sentence Summary

Using Appreciative Inquiry (AI) theoretical perspective, this study investigates how blogs are used in an administrator preparation program to enhance the inherent leadership qualities of students.


Raymond L. Calabrese

Research Questions

This article investigates the following research questions:

  • How do prospective school administrators describe their experience of difference makers who served as exemplars in their lives?

  • How do prospective school administrators describe their strengths and successful leadership experiences where they overcame challenges?

As research grows using Web 2.0 applications and appreciative inquiry, I believe the future is brighter than it ever has been for school leadership.

Major Findings/Discussion Points

This study had four major findings.

Appreciative blogging confirms personal strengths and successful leadership experiences

Blogging provided a reflective space for students to explore their successful leadership practices. Through interacting with other students’ blogs, they helped each other to see the “extra-ordinariness” of their everyday experiences.

Appreciative blogging creates a healthy and supportive learning community\

Blogging fostered a support system between students as they commented on each others’ blog posts and affirmed their professional contributions and experiences. Blogging also revealed how students’ personal and professional lives were intertwined and helped them to express compassion and empathy for their peers.

Appreciative blogging confirms the students’ history of successful leadership experiences

The stories shared by students on their blogs demonstrated a long history of leadership experiences, through their ability to make an impact on other people’s lives and to overcome obstacles. Realizing that they already had many inherent leadership qualities helped students see their potential as school administrators.

Appreciative blogging increases social capital among students

Blogging helped students increase their level of mutual influence and helped them to develop a sense of trust and connection over their future of becoming school administrators. Students inspired one another through their stories of courage and overcoming challenges, both in their personal and professional lives. Sharing stories helped students to build a strong emotional connection.

Full Citation

Calabrese, R.L. (2012). Web 2.0 integration into the graduate classroom: An appreciative inquiry into prospective school administrator strengths and leadership experiences. International Journal of Educational Management, 26(2), 192-204.

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Summary of "Administrators' Professional Learning Via Twitter: The Dissonance Between Beliefs and Actions"

One Sentence Summary

This study investigates the tweets of 17 campus-level school administrators from the US and Canada to determine if they support the claim that Twitter helps administrators with professional learning.


Vincent Cho

Research Questions

This article investigates three research questions:

  • What are the perceived benefits of participating on Twitter?

  • What information do administrators share on Twitter?

  • To what extent (if any) does information from Twitter contribute to administrator practice?

Despite claims that social media will revolutionize professional learning , the choice to use Twitter or other online platforms is and ought to be a personal one.

Major Findings/Discussion Points

While participants reported that Twitter enhanced their growth as administrators, their tweets did not provide strong evidence of knowledge sharing about administrator work.

Perceived benefits of participating on Twitter

Social and professional benefits of Twitter

  • Participants benefited from the increased sense of community and belonging they experienced on Twitter, which helped them feel less socially isolated.

  • Twitter provided a place where participants felt comfortable voicing their issues and concerns and received help from colleagues.

  • Participants felt special because Twitter gave them a place to connect with renowned school leaders from around the world.

Twitter as professional development

  • Participants reported that Twitter allowed them to share ideas and engage with colleagues in a convenient and accessible way.

  • Twitter provided the participants with daily inspiration, new perspectives, and engaging reading.

  • The timeliness of the conversations on Twitter was an advantage over print media, providing them with learning opportunities every day.

Knowledge shared via Twitter

Participants shared both canonical knowledge (describing administrators’ practice) and non-canonical knowledge (the work of school administrators) via Twitter.

  • Canonical knowledge: Participants’ tweets were primarily about technology and technology use, while the least common topics included teaching, leadership, educational policy, and professional growth. While the study found that participants shared some formal knowledge related to their job, there were no tweets about management/operations, community engagement, supervision, or evaluation.

  • Non-canonical knowledge: Participants tweeted announcements, workplace vignettes, and shared real-life stories and interests rather than discussing school leadership.

Outcomes in schools

There were few changes to policy and practices as a result of Twitter. While Twitter had the potential for direct impact on policy and administrators’ practice, this kind of impact was rarely reported.

Full Citation

Cho, V. (2016). Administrators’ professional learning via Twitter: The dissonance between beliefs and actions. Journal of Educational Administration, 54(3), 340-356.

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