Bloom's New Digital Taxonomy

A Framework for Improving Educational Administrator Preparation Programs

How can we improve administrator preparation programs? It might seem like a daunting question (and one that’s hard to solve in a single blog post), but I think we can start by doing this one thing:

Incorporate projects into the curriculum that require students to use technology to make something new.

But how do we do that? Bloom’s New Digital Taxonomy, a revision to Bloom’s Taxonomy for the digital age, suggests several ways in which technology can be incorporated into the curriculum to improve student learning. If applied to administrator preparation programs, educational administrators could graduate with an important skill set that will set them up for success in their careers and allow them to be more dynamic researchers.

A Brief Review of Bloom’s Taxonomy

You may have heard about Bloom’s Taxonomy. Originally developed in 1956 by Benjamin Bloom, Bloom’s Taxonomy provides a useful framework for instructors to set educational goals in their classrooms. Often illustrated as a pyramid (but in this case, portrayed as a lightbulb), the original Bloom’s framework scaffolds students’ skills. Beginning with knowledge, the idea is that a student progresses up the “levels” of the pyramid, to comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and finally, evaluation (pictured in Figure 1).

Figure 1. FRActus learning. Bloom's taxonomy verbs. image provided via creative commons license.

Figure 1. FRActus learning. Bloom's taxonomy verbs. image provided via creative commons license.

Then, in the early 2000s, Bloom’s original taxonomy was revised to move away from static notions of educational objectives to action verbs, to better describe student cognitive processes. For example, remembering became remember, comprehension became understanding, and perhaps most importantly, evaluation became creating. And however useful these previous versions of Bloom’s Taxonomy continue to be, earlier versions did not fully consider the possibilities created by advancements in technology.

Bloom’s New Digital Taxonomy, as the new revisions by Andrew Churches came to be known, incorporates technology in a way that is more aligned with the 21st century learner. And it’s this new digital revision that may have useful applications to improving courses in administrator preparation programs.

Bloom’s New Digital Taxonomy

Bloom's New Digital Taxonomy includes certain verbs that describe more accurately, how today's students might learn. So for example, to remember (lowest-level cognition), students may highlight, duplicate, or visualize information. To create (highest-level cognition), students may choose to film, direct, or publish an original piece of research.

The diagram below is a useful resource from Fractus Learning that illustrates the ways in which students can remember, understand, apply, analyze, evaluate, and create using digital tools.

Figure 2. fractus learning. bloom's taxonomy for the digital world. iimage Provided via creative commons license.

Figure 2. fractus learning. bloom's taxonomy for the digital world. iimage Provided via creative commons license.

This revision of Bloom's Taxonomy suggests that it's never too late to revise old systems to make them work for today’s learners. I think that we should have the same view when examining whether the current structures of our administrator preparation programs properly equip today’s administrators to work and thrive in the modern university.

In my opinion, we put future educational administration researchers and leaders at a disadvantage by not emphasizing technology as a means through which to learn and to create original research. Scholars have noted the absence of emphasis on technology in the field of educational administration & leadership, and Bloom’s New Digital Taxonomy may be one way that we can address this gap in curriculum.

Student Project Ideas

Ideas for student projects that incorporate technology could include:

  • Recording a podcast on administration and/or higher education issues.

  • Publishing a blog to reflect on administrator learning in graduate school.

  • Crafting an autoethnographic arts-based research project that explores the student's personal motivation for studying educational administration & leadership.

  • Designing a multimedia presentation on the effects of organizational alienation.

  • Writing an original essay, study, or literature review on a topic of the student's choosing.

Do you think Bloom's New Digital Taxonomy is a useful framework that has the potential of improving educational administrator preparation programs? What are some ways to encourage students to create original pieces of research using technology?


Bloom's Taxonomy for the Digital World. Retrieved from

Bloom's Taxonomy Verbs. Retrieved from

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